History of the Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers
Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers (CSCE) was established in 1954, when The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (UCTEA) was established. It was one of the ten chambers that are founder member of UCTEA. The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (UCTEA) was established in 1954 by the Law 7303 and the Decree-Laws 66 and 85 amending of the Law 6235. UCTEA is a corporate body and a professional organization defined in the form of a public institution as stated in the Article 135 of the Constitution. At the establishment stage, UCTEA had 10 Chambers and 8.000 members. However, as of December 31, 2016, the number of Chambers has increased to 24, while the number of members reached 510.559. UCTEA is maintaining its activities with its 24 Chambers, 213 branches of its Chambers and 50 Provincial Coordination Councils. Approximately, graduates of 91 related academic disciplines in engineering, architecture and city planning are members of the Chambers of UCTEA.
The objectives of UCTEA listed in the Law on the Union are as follows:

To separate engineers and architects to professional branches, with the condition of being within the framework of laws and regulations and in accordance with the present conditions, requirements and possibilities and to also establishes Chambers for the group of engineers and architects, whose professional or working areas are similar or the same.

To satisfy the common needs of engineers and architects, to facilitate the professional activities and to ensure the development of the professions in accordance with the common benefits, to sustain professional discipline and ethics relations so as to ensure honesty and trust in the relations among colleagues and their relations with public. In addition, UCTEA takes all necessary initiatives and organizes activities aiming to protect interests of public and country; protect environment, historical sites, and cultural heritage; increase agricultural and industrial production; detect, save, and operate the natural resources and contribute to the technical and artistic development of the country.

In issues related with professions and its interests, UCTEA cooperates with official institutions and other organizations, and hence provides help and voices its proposals. It examines entire legislation, norms, scientific specifications and standart contracts and similar and relevant scientific documents related to profession and make suggestions concerning their amendment, improvement or re-application.

Parallel to the relations of its chambers with equivalent institutions, UCTEA is a member of the WFEO- World Federation of Engineering Organizations.

Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers works on the base of the Law on Engineering and Architecture” with number of 3458 and the Main Regulation of Chamber of Survey and Cadastre Engineers.

Engineering Organizations Before UCTEA and CSCE

Organizations of engineers and architect start to appear in the middle of 19th century in Europe and USA, while it starts with 2nd Constitutional Period in our country. It is known that many civil organizations were established in 1908 in Istanbul. One of them was the Ottoman Community of Engineers and Architects. The Community suspended its activities in 1912, restarted to work in 1919 and continued until 1922. Among the first organizations after the Republic, Turkish Union of Engineers was established in 1926 in Ankara.

Some of the aims of this union are;

To serve for the development of the country, the growth of national economy and the progress of the profession To serve to provide the rights of profession and protection of the benefits of the members and to increase the relationships and solidarity among the engineers To increase the interest of the young people for the profession in order to train new engineers so that there is no need to bring engineers from abroad and to enable Turkish engineers and contractors to build constructions in our country if there is no necessity for capital and to provide the employment of Turkish engineers in national and foreign firms in our country

After this organization, Turkish Union of Certified Engineers was established in 1927. The aim of the union was “to provide intellectual and professional solidarity among Turkish Certified Engineers; to present Turkish architecture in and outside the country; to serve for the progress of Turkish art of architecture and construction in accordance with the international developments and to protect professional, economical and legal benefits of Turkish certified architects.”

In the following years, some other organizations were added to these unions according to their fields of profession. Some of them integrated with others later on.

There is no a complete list of these organizations. Some of them are: Turkish Union of Engineers, Turkish Union of Certified Engineers, Turkish Community of Marine Engineers, Turkish Union of Mining Engineers, Turkish Union of Certified Mining Engineers, Association of Karabük Heavy Industry Engineers, Turkish Institution of Geology, Turkish Community of Surveying and Cadastre, Turkish Union of Certified Architects, Community of Forest Engineers, Turkish Union of Certified Agricultural Engineers.

Background of the Foundation Process Of CSCE

The education of surveying and cadastre engineering in our country started in 1949, with the initiation of General Directorate of Registry and Cadastre (GDRC) (especially with endeavors of Mümtaz Tarhan, the director in this process). The first graduates were 7 people in 1952 from the department of Surveying and Cadastre Engineering in Istanbul Technical School (its current name is Yıldız Technical University).

Before the Republic, there were some schools of surveying that were founded in 1800s. Some of them were for military service. The other civil school was the Cadastre High School that was established in 1911.

In the Republican period, the first generation of Surveying Engineers were those who were allowed to go to abroad for education for Ministry of Defense and obliged to serve within the body of General Command for Cartography in return. These engineers were soldiers and they were 30 in total.

In the beginning of 1950s, there was initiation for the foundation of chambers of engineers and architects. In 1954, the Law of UCTEA was legalized and according to this law, it was necessary to be minimum 50 members in order to found a chamber. To reach this number, the young engineers and soldier engineers under the body of General Command for Cartography came together. Some engineers from the Community of Surveying and Cadastre Engineers contributed to the foundation of UCTEA. The engineers decided to be independent chamber rather than being a sub-organization of Chamber of Civil Engineers.

Chamber of Surveying and Cadastre Engineers was one the ten chambers that participated into the foundation of UCTEA in 1954. We celebrate all the young engineers for their vision, labor and great endeavor and we remember all of them with respect.

First regular general assembly of UCTEA was completed in October 18-22 in 1954. The first assembly of CSCE was met in 1954 too and it was approved by UCTEA in April 4 of 1955, then it started to act.

By January 2018, CSCE is a democratic and independent professional organization with public institution status. It has 1 Central Office, 10 braches, 9 agencies depended on the Center, 175 county and district agencies, 25 working place agencies and more than 17.000 members (15.460 active members).

Founder Members:

Founder Chairperson: Celalettin Songu

First Member: Ekrem Ulsoy

Fiftieth Member: Celalettin Songu

Other Members in the foundation:

19 Certified Surveying Engineers (They took education in abroad)

8 Licensed Parcel Engineers

23 Surveying and Cadastre Engineers (Graduated from Surveying and Cadastre Engineering branch of Istanbul Technical School)

The list of first 50 members:

1- Ekrem Ulsoy 13- Servet Çetintaş 25- Necati Aydemir 37- A. Gani Gürün
2- Macit Erbudak 14- Arif Çakıroğlu 26- Turhan Başman 38- Fahri Homan
3- Muhiddin Aran 15- İlhan Bayrak 27- Mehmet Mehdi Batur 39- Lütfü İlhan
4- Tevfik Ateş 16- Nazmi Arslan 28- Mehmet Nuri Bülbül 40- Sevinç İşgör
5- Seyfettin Kunman 17- Avni Par 29- Hayrettin Büyükkoç 41- Mehmet Emin Kural
6- Ahmet Uğur Oğuz 18- Sami Aykaç 30- Memduh Çölgeçen 42- Hüseyin Bozkır
7- A. Nuri Ebcim 19- Ziyaettin Soydan 31- M. Vasfi Cindoruk 43- Orhan Kalıpçı
8- Ömer Kadri Koray 20- Enver başaran 32- Zeki Ersöz 44- Hasan Kıran
9- Ali Yaramancı 21- Abdülkerim Evinay 33- M. Emin Ertürk 45- Talat Öztürk
10- Saim Arıkan 22- Mehmet Ali Erkan 34- Mehmet Nuri Ergin 46- Cahit Özbaş
11- Bahadır Anafarta 23- İ. Kasım Yaşar 35- İskender Göçer 47- Vehbi Oran
12- Refik Halit Erüren 24- Kemal Akman 36- Mustafa Gönençcan 48- Ahmet Polat
49- Celalettin Songu

Until 1954, all 50 members were male. The first budget was 8.175 TL. The salary of an engineer in this period was 1.500 TL.

The first activities of our Chamber:

The first Centre of our Chamber was one-roomed flat in Soysal House in Kızılay, Ankara. The first study was an inquiry about what should be the name of our profession. In a democratic way, it was decided as Surveying and Cadastre. The next study of our Chamber was to make an application to Middle East Technical University in 1958, to Istanbul Technical University in 1959 and to Ankara University in 1961 for establishment of the department of surveying and cadastre. Moreover, it labored for the employment of surveying and cadastre engineers as responsible engineers in the tender works of Provincial Bank (İller Bankası).

This is the first publication of our Chamber. Its title was Handbook of Surveyor, published in 1959 for 4000 copies.

The first reports of our Chamber were about cadastre of Turkey, the sector of cadastre, registry and surveying, as presented below:

The first journal of surveying and cadastre engineering was published in May 1st of 1965, with great endeavors of Prof. Dr. Ahmet Aksoy and Prof. Dr. Ahmet Yaşayan. The journal continues to be published today, as refereed journal and with the name of CSCE Geodesy and Geoinformation, Land Administration.

In the years of 1960s, the budget of our Chamber was about 80.000 TL. Six of those who participated in the board of the Chamber between 1960 and 1963 became the Chairperson of the Chamber. Between 1962 and 1963, they completed a report about confidentiality and its negative effects on the profession. It was presented to the authorities including Ministry of Defense. The reports of Cadastre of Turkey and Our Cause of Cadastre From the View of Turkish Grand National Assembly (TGNA) were published as books between 1962-1963. In the same years, another report was about the reformulation of the sector and the main chapters of this report were included in the Research Project for Central Government Organization. There was an attempt to include the Sector of Surveying, Registry and Cadastre in “Development Plans” and it was succeeded in the 1st Five Year Development Plan. By 1965, the flat in Sumer Sokak was bought for 77.000 TL and the budget left was about 70.000.

There was one more report about continuity in the tenders, policy of price and the works that will be done by private sector. It was presented to State Planning Organization. In 1966, our Chamber made its first “Technical Congress” and the departments were established in Karadeniz Technical University in 1968 and in Istanbul Technical University in 1969. In the same year, our Chamber become a member of International Federation of Surveyors. The first open seminars were organized in the issue of shanty houses in 1970. In 1996, upon the applications of Prof. Macit Erbudak and Prof. Ekrem Ulsoy, our Chamber started to form a fund for the research assistants working in Istanbul Yıldız Technical School.

One of the most important issues in 1960s for our Chamber is about the title of “engineer” for military officers for surveying. In 1960, military officers applied to Ministry of National Education but the Ministry rejected their demand in reference to the reports of Istanbul Yıldız Technical School and Istanbul Technical University. Still, they succeeded to legislate a law for their demand and 143 military officer surveyors applied to our chamber for membership.

In the years of 1970s,the main principle of our Chamber was “to act in the line of progressive and socialist” while its mission was “to be in the forefront of historical development”, expressed in 17th Period Working Report.

The problems related with our profession in this era were as the following:

- Deficiency to benefit from technical power for national development

- No plan and systematics in national education and training

- Problems of social security and finance of our professionals

- No specialization

- Degeneration in green and fertile soils

- No prevention of irregular urbanization and land speculation

- The existence of a policy of cadastre that causes to plunder the public lands and pastures necessary for the land reform.

Special Issue for our Chamber: Land Reform

The issue of land reform was in the agenda of the country from the foundation of republic. This issue, together with development plans and their relation with our profession, was also in the agenda of our Chamber. In 1970, our Chamber prepared “Report of Land Reform” and presented to all related public institutions while the statement of opinions in this issue was delivered to the TGNA Joint Commission. In the 17th Working Report, land reform was identified as the following:

For us, the land reform,

- With a balanced land distribution, it should provide the needs of land for the farmers who have no land or very limited land

- Within a structured program, it should provide for the farmers advanced agriculture technologies –the facilities of seeds, manure, watering and similar things- and it should provide cooperatives for production and marketing

- It should prohibit the possession of the public lands with provision of ownership

- It should apply a regime for the usage of land and prevent over-fragmentation of the land

- It should protect the farmers from mediator and pawnshops and it should ensure a just working of agricultural credit institutions

- It should provide the consolidation of dwelling units, that are dispersed and with very low population, within major production cooperatives

- It should create finance for industrialization and development with increasing production in the agriculture

- It should take and apply measures to clean the country in a certain manner from all the residuals of feudalism.

In 1973, the law draft about land and agriculture reform was reawaken and our Chamber prepared some requests for change proposal to the agenda of TGNA, but the proposal was ignored and the law was legislated. This law was cancelled by Constitutional Court and it was abolished in May 10th of 1978. The issue of land reform is still a social question and in the agenda of the country.

In 1971, the law with no. 1327 changed the law with no. 657 and it started to become valid. Thereupon, there began intensive studies on personal rights. From the beginning of 2nd Five Year Development Plan, there were meetings and our Chamber tried to develop new approaches for the solution of the problems. But there was no more general interest to the issue and so, no sufficient result could be achieved.

The Chamber value the studies oriented to reformulate and regulate the administration. It formed a committee, which prepared a report with a title “Opinions for the principles of Reorganization in the Sector of Surveying, Registry and Cadastre”. This report was properly evaluated in the studies of the Research Group.

In 1971, ten chambers in collaboration conducted an inquiry in order to contact with the ground, to analyze the conditions of technic personals in terms of their status, salaries and union rights and also to provide a base for the report that will be prepared to contribute to the 3rd Five Year Development Plan. The inquiry was delivered to 29.700 people while 7.200 responded to it. Then the participation rate was 23.9 %.

The first international meeting was held with FIG in 1969; it was the 20th Anniversary Meeting of Cadastre and Land Development Commission No. 7 in Istanbul and Izmir.

The Chamber intensively dealt with and supported the “Regulation for Maps and Plans Related with Registry” prepared by General Directorate of Registry and Cadastre (GDRC), published in Official Gazette with date of 6.8.1973 and number of 14617 since this regulation was oriented to prevent the national interest both in terms of cadastre studies and development plan implementations.

What can be done in the context of additional articles number 7 and 8 of Building Code with no. 6785 regulating the protection of the coasts? For this question, our Chamber proposed its suggestions in a report. Thereupon, Ministry of Development and Housing provided the photography of all the coasts.

In 1975, the Chamber succeeded a public opinion the land consolidation in the context of “the Project of Below Fırat” that is known as South-Eastern Anatolia Project today.

In 1976, the branch of Istanbul was established.

The statement of opinion of the Chamber about the controllability of cropped area for opium poppy was taken place in the media in 1974 and 1975.

The law draft for UCTEA was approved by TGNA and sent to the Senate. In the draft, the obligation of the engineers and architects working in the public was abolished and there are various inhibitive provisions. After discussions with the members of the Senate and other authorities, the draft was transformed in general congress of the Senate and it was sent back to the TGNA.

The Chamber was represented in the studies of Turkish Standards Institute and the report on the mapping standards and opinions of the Chamber were delivered to relevant institutions.

The first professional supervision application

In 1976, General Congress decided that the Regulation of Visa will come into force. But it needed for the circular note of GDRC. This institution did not affirm the applications since 1976. Some representatives and members made protocols with municipalities and some members applied to GDRC and attempted to prevent the publication of the circular note. With the new government, our Chamber restarted its initiatives about this issue and in 1978, after a meeting with Ahmet Şener, the Minister of State responsible for GDRC, provided the publication of the condition that it is necessary to take a visa from the Chamber in Application of Maps and Plans Related with Registry. Therefore, the Chamber became responsible for Professional Supervision Application in all around the country.

The Chamber prepared a detailed list of unit prices of the services included “Regulation for Maps and Plans Related with Registry” published in Official Gazette with date of 6.8.1973 and number of 14617 and it made them applicable in 1978.

In the 26th General Congress, the following decision was taken: “The staff of the Chamber (the staff working in agencies and professional supervision) was paid in a certain rate of visa in accordance with the rate determined by the Board of the Chamber.” According to this decision, 10 % of total visa in a year would paid to the staff working agencies and professional supervision by the date of 1.1.1981.

The Regulation for Minimum Wage for Independent Service of Engineering and Architecture was published in Official Gazette in 22.4.1990 with the number of 20500. According to this regulation, Wage Scale for Engineering Services was carried into effect.

In 1978, the terror culminated and oriented to absorb the struggle for democracy. The education in the universities was cancelled because the terror was also among the student protests and it threatened the life of the people. Prof. Dr. Macit Erbudak was about to be murdered in the bomb attack organized by fascist terrorist organizations in order to block the education in the universities.

Our Chamber included in a working group together with other chambers, it directed this group and prepared reports about Project of Below Fırat (South-Eastern Anatolian Project).

In 1978, the Chamber completed certain studies on Draft for Technical Regulation, Detection of Unit Prices, 5th Five Year Development Plan.

Terror continued to be violent in 1979 and Prof. Dr. Cavit Orhan Tütengil, Prof. Dr. Ümit Yaşar Doğanay, Prof. Dr. Bedri Karafakioğlu and Abdi İpekçi were murdered.

Similarly, Zeki Erginbay, the editor in chief of the journal Technical Power published by Istanbul Brach of the Chamber of Civil Engineers.

In August 26th of 1979, Istanbul Branch of our Chamber in Barbaros Avenue in Beşiktaş was bombed.

There was organized a panel of “The City of Istanbul and Problems of Urbanization” by Istanbul Brach. Proceedings Book was published to the memory of Prof. Dr. Ümit Yaşar Doğanay who contributed to the panel with a paper and valuable proposals but who was murdered by fascist organizations.

Military Coup of 1980 and Our Chamber

In 1979, there was import about 5 billion dollars vs. export about 2 billion and 261 million while in 1980, the import was about 6 billion vs. 2 billion and 840 million dollars.

Between 1970 and 1979, total import was 39 billion dollars while total export was about 15 billion even thought our country has unlimited resources.

In this period, the economic crisis was intensive and well-know “24th January Decisions” were taken in 1980. Moreover, International Monetary Fund (IMF) proposed “a package of stability” where there is demand for devaluation, restriction of size of money and credit, reduction in public expenditures and encouragement of foreign capital.

These “neoliberal” policies can be realized only by a military government and there happened a military coup in 12th September of 1980. After this coup, these policies were realized quickly. This effected our profession, colleagues and Chamber as well.

In this era, intellectuals and journalists, student and workers or civil servants were arrested and tortured for years. 1982 Constitution as the product of the military government restricted human rights and freedoms. Labor unions were abolished and the studies of chambers were blocked. In these conditions our Chamber tried to continue to act.

The Activities of the Chamber after 1980

In 1983, the Chamber opposed to sworn bureaus and registry allotment documents and delivered its opinions to all related authorities.

Between 1988 and 1989, Regulation of Maps and Plans Related with Registry were changed for the advantage of our Chamber.

In 1983, our Chamber opposed to Law of Zoning Forgiveness with number 2981 that is legislated by Motherland Party Government and there is a conflict with the State Minister of the era.

Our Chamber served a consultation to GDRC for preparation of relevant documents of tenders and earned 7 million TL (while its total budget was 12 million in that period). With this money, the Chamber paid the membership fee of FIG and restarted its membership. Between 1984 and 1985, similar service of consultation was made for General Directorate of Highways. In 1985, the Chamber completed the “Surface Net of the Country Project” for GDRC.

The Regulation of Making Larger Scaled Maps was published in Official Gazette and came into effect in 31st January of 1988 with no. 19711. In the same period, General Command of Mapping attempted to change the law with no. 203 in this way: “Making 1/1000 and larger scaled maps was depended on the permission of General Command of Mapping.”

The Chamber continued for institutionalization with the following works:

- Regulation of CSCE, UCTEA

- Regulation of CSCE for Registry by Independent Engineering Consultation Bureaus

- Regulation of CSCE Finance and Budget Application

- Regulation of CSCE Professional Supervision and Minimum Wage

- Regulation of CSCE for Publication

- Regulation of CSCE for Supervision

- Regulation of CSCE for Type Building and Agreement with Metropolitan Municipalities Regulations for Building

- CSCE General Notice for the Working Principles of Supervision Boards

- Regulation of CSCE for Technical and Scientific Commissions

- Directives of CSCE for Congresses

- The Rules regulating the Journal of Surveying and Cadastre

International Activities of the Chamber

- 1st International Symposium of Deformation, 5-9 September 1994, Istanbul

- International Training Seminars for Cartography, 1994

- International GIS / GPS Symposium, 15-18 September 1997, Istanbul

- International Symposium for GIS, 23-26 September 2002

- International Urban Transformation Symposium

- UCTEA International GIS Congress

Conference of HABITAT II (13-14 June, 1996)

UCTEA CSCE as a civil social organization to represent the sector of surveying and cadastre engineering approached to HABITAT II in an official and civil society plane, with responsibility of creating an intersection. In this conference, certain concepts were as the following: Sustainable Development in the Conditions of Globalization, Sustainable Environment, Land Use, New Meaning of Social State, Internal and External Migration, Stateless and Homeless People, New Approaches to Planning, New Urban Law and Crimes Against Cities, etc.

The Reality of Earthquake in Turkey

92 % of the area of Turkey, 95 % of its population and 98 % of its industry locate in earthquake zone. In this country, there happened 130 earthquakes with over 5.0 intensity in last hundred years. In these earthquakes, 80 thousands people died, 150 thousand people got injured and 600 thousands building were damaged. 17th August Earthquake revived certain realities such as unplanned urbanization or lack of any standardization which the governments avoid to face and do something to correct.

Our Chamber thinks that the reasons of the losses lived in earthquakes in 17th August and 12th November were unplanned industrialization that increasingly continued since 1950 and an understanding that adopts urbanization as the model for development, considers people and cities as cheap labor and infrastructure for capitalistic accumulation and ignores the social and cultural dimensions and repercussions of these realities in order to make much more money and interest.

Those who ignore the reason, science and technology in determination of the area for industry and dwelling, make the buildings as the most important tool for trade, eliminate the mechanisms for public supervision and plunder the public resources will be the responsible for the disasters in the history.

Days for Young Surveyors

The aims of this activity are as the following:

- To introduce the new technologies and developments

- To show the effects of these development on our profession

- To exchange knowledge on education with national and international institutions

- To know the studies for professional education and training in the sector

- To meet with young colleagues living here or abroad

- To initiate scientific and technological collaboration and communication

- To gain a perspective for the future of our profession by virtue of conferences, discussions and exchanges

In these activities, native and foreign students and colleagues come together. The days are experienced with a great enthusiasm and happiness. This is why it becomes a traditional activity to create a possibility and field for the encounters of young engineers in a solidarity and friendship.

26th Congress of FIG – FIG2018 Istanbul

One of the most important works of the Chamber is to represent properly our profession and colleagues in international relations.

FIG is a professional federation that was established with the aims of provision of international professional collaboration and support international collaboration for the development of all fields and applications of surveying in the world. There are representatives from 123 counties and 103 chambers and unions from 87 countries were the members in national level.

CSCE is one these members and represents Turkey in FIG as the foundation representing our profession in global scale.

Our Chamber within the body of FIG held the first international meeting in 1969; it was the 20th Anniversary Meeting of Cadastre and Land Development Commission No. 7 in Istanbul and Izmir.

Similarly, there happened two International Symposiums for GIS in 15-18 September 1997 and in 23-26 September 2002 in Istanbul.

Our Chamber completed such kinds of activities without forgetting the aim of having a voice in the administration of the institution of FIG. Now our Chamber is very close to achieve this aim when it gained the first international success of bringing the FIG 2018 Congress to our country. In the 25th FIG Congress organized in Kuala Lumpur in June 2014, our Chamber was selected with 72 yes and 1 no vote as the host of the 26th FIG Congress that will be organized in Istanbul between 6-11 May, 2018.

The director of this great congress is Dr. Orhan Ercan while one of members of regulatory board is Assoc. Prof. Muzaffer Kahveci.

Another success of the Chamber in international arena is that one of the vice presidents of FIG has become Dr. Orhan Ercan. In the 39th General Assembly organized in Christchurch / New Zealand between 2 – 6 May, 2016, Dr. Organ Ercan, as the president of international affairs commission of our Chamber and also director of FIG 2018 Congress, was selected as one of the vice-presidents of FIG. He will be in this position until 2020.

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